Hence, the gene repertoires of Polyphaga exhibit a more dynamic evolutionary history with more gains (rate) in more OGs (counts) and fewer losses (rate) spread out over more OGs (counts). Staphyliniformia. Adephaga The first abdominal segment is split by the posterior coxa. Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Voelckel C, Jander G. Insect-plant interactions. 1, Table 1). Draft genome of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major forest pest. Nucleic Acids Res. Adaptive LSE is represented by the alternative hypotheses of OU models with selection towards two optima having the same variance (OUM) or with selection towards two optima having two variances (OUMV). The same test applied individually on each candidate gene family within the candidate dataset demonstrated that categories enriched for LSE under selection in Polyphaga were GSTs (3/6 positive tests, FDR-corrected p value < 1e−09) and CEs (3/19, FDR-corrected p value < 0.005), as shown in detail in Table 4. For example, we identified nine GST OGs (six were retained as candidates after filtering) while ten subclasses have been identified in arthropods . Gene duplication as a mechanism of genomic adaptation to a changing environment. Importantly, the enrichment of positive results among candidates still holds if this OG is excluded (see Additional file 1: Supplementary Results). (usually A. castellanii and A. polyphaga) are associated with AK, a painful infection of the cornea.. AK is a rare disease that may lead to impaired vision, permanent blindness and loss of … 1, 4), the specimen belongs in Adephaga. 2009;63:2771–89. Seppey, M., Ioannidis, P., Emerson, B.C. Re : Adephaga vs Polyphaga ? 2014;30:1236–40. Han MV, Thomas GW, Lugo-Martinez J, Hahn MW. The phylogenetic study of adaptive zones: has phytophagy promoted insect diversification? Labandeira CC. Second, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) models were used. Labandeira CC. Cdlt, Gérard 21/04/2014, 14h57 #3 zyket. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2005. 2010;5:e15635. 2005;37:573–8. Vasilikopoulos A, Balke M, Beutel RG, Donath A, Podsiadlowski L, Pflug JM, et al. PLoS One. 1997;25:3389–402. This indicates that genes other than the candidate detoxification and digestion enzymes, which could include genes with functions less obviously related or unrelated to phytophagy, are also likely to have played a role in the adaptive success and diversification of Polyphaga. Enzymes are considered particularly relevant candidates for such evolutionary processes as they could expand their range of substrates . The Laparocerus tessellatus transcriptome data are available from Zenodo https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1336288 . 2015;31:926–32. A balanced sampling of each suborder was achieved comprising 12 transcriptomes and 6 genomes, with Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Ortholog (BUSCO) completeness estimates [31, 32] ranging from 71.9 to 97% (Fig. Beaulieu JM, Jhwueng DC, Boettiger C, O’Meara BC. CD-HIT-EST v4.6.1  was run on the protein sequences with a 97.5% identity threshold to ensure that all species datasets were filtered to select a single isoform per gene. Candidate OGs of GSTs, CEs, P450s, and CYSs tested positive for adaptive LSEs in the phytophagous polyphagan beetle lineage, and categories of GSTs and CEs, in particular, were enriched for OGs with such adaptive LSEs. Keeling CI, Yuen MM, Liao NY, Docking TR, Chan SK, Taylor GA, et al. Re-analysis with CAFE and OUwie with this unbalanced dataset of seven Adephaga vs. nine Polyphaga showed that three out of the eight previously positive results still stood with this lower power. PLoS One. 90% af alle nulevende billearter. 2007;318:1913–6. Both are adult females, carrying ootheca. As lineages diverge, their genomes accumulate changes, some of which are expected to be directly linked to functional adaptations. This difference in average gene counts is reduced to just 1384 when considering only genes assigned to the 9720 OGs selected for the analysis. Protein-coding sequence predictions ranged from 9844 to 24,671 genes per beetle species. 2016;44:D279–85. Finn RD, Coggill P, Eberhardt RY, Eddy SR, Mistry J, Mitchell AL, et al. By comparing the degree of expansion among the gene families involved in detoxification of plant secondary compounds in two suborders of beetles characterized by generally contrasting trophic niches (i.e., Polyphaga contain a high proportion of phytophagous species while Adephaga encompass mostly predacious species), we identify genomic support for the popular hypothesis that Coleoptera species richness may be in part explained by their interaction with land plants. Among these were 26 of the 91 candidate OGs (28.6%), a significantly larger proportion (two-sample test for equality of proportions, chi-square test, p value < 0.0001) compared with just 9.3% of non-candidate OGs. Am Nat. Briefly, protein sequence alignments are assessed to identify all best reciprocal hits (BRHs) between genes from each pair of species, which are then clustered into OGs following a graph-based approach that starts with BRH triangulation. The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; Genome Database (genomes and annotated genes); the Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly (TSA) Sequence Database (transcriptomes); and Zenodo (https://zenodo.org). 2016;95:51–65 Pergamon. The monophyly of Geadephaga and Hydradephaga was constrained to match the generally accepted resolution of Adephaga (as ). Article Detoxification is completed by membrane transporters, such as ATP-binding cassette (ABCs) transporters, which move xenobiotic compounds to where they can either be excreted or less frequently sequestered in order to be reused as a defense mechanism . Mol Biol Evol. This beetle needs fresh water to reproduce, and prefers to dwell in large, deep ponds (Matta 1974). The proportion of OGs with expansions and higher optima in the background (all “candidate” and remaining “control” OGs) was significantly larger for Polyphaga compared to Adephaga (two-sample test for equality of proportions, chi-squared, 88/9720 vs. 21/9720, p value < 1e−09), indicating that Polyphaga have experienced globally more LSE under selection on protein-coding genes. Cell. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters, Akaike Information Criterion corrected for small sample size, Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Ortholog assessment tool, Computational Analysis of gene Family Evolution tool, Multiple Alignment using Fast Fourier Transform tool. RAxML v8.1.2 (-f a -m PROTGAMMA -N 1000)  was used to compute the maximum likelihood tree. Lupi D., Jucker C., Rocco A. Bioinformatics. Immediately ahead, you will meet a new monster, the Polyphaga. 2003;84:179–238. Mol Biol Evol. Thus, both gain and maintenance are higher for candidates in Polyphaga, which is consistent with a key role for phytophagy in driving dynamic gene repertoire evolution, and particularly LSEs. 2016. It progressively diversified to target most plant tissues , shortly before the radiation of flowering plants 120–100 million years ago . Comparing the two clades, Polyphaga has a higher rate of gene gain and six times more OGs with gains, and while the Adephaga rate of gene loss is higher, Polyphaga have 1.5 times more OGs that have experienced gene losses. A. pharmaceutical drugs can be of great help when the disease breaks out. Science. Annu Rev Ecol Syst. As discussed above, the use of transcriptome data for 12 species presents a potentially confounding factor that we attempt to control for in our analysis design and supplementary analyses. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci. Evolution. Beaulieu JM, O’Meara B. OUwie: analysis of evolutionary rates in an OU framework [Internet]. Seehausen O, Butlin RK, Keller I, Wagner CE, Boughman JW, Hohenlohe PA, et al. The volume includes the proceedings of a symposium on carabid phylogeny and classification held in Florence in August 1996. CAFE: a computational tool for the study of gene family evolution. Custom scripts are available from Zenodo https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2593899 . 2 and Additional file 1: Figures S3-S9) nevertheless show several examples of closely related paralogs from the transcriptomes, indicating that they can be successfully recovered. 2015;112:3026–31. HEE, DDM, BM, SS, and XZ provided access to 1KITE transcriptome data. Science. 2015;157:98–112 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Barrick JE, Lenski RE. Fundamental concepts in genetics: genetics and the understanding of selection. 2 and Additional file 1: Figures S3-S9) are candidate OGs belonging to one of the candidate gene families of Table 2, while none of the 21 OGs with higher optima in Adephaga belong to any of the candidate gene families. The giant black water beetle (Hydrophilus triangularis) (Figure 1) is the largest aquatic-dwelling beetle in not only Florida, but in the entire United States (Epler 2010). Carbon S, Dietze H, Lewis SE, Mungall CJ, Munoz-Torres MC, Basu S, et al. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum. The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback. 2015;43:D250–6. The P450 OG is by far the largest among the positive results (Additional file 1: Figure S3), highlighting the importance of P450s in beetle (and generally insect) physiology with diverse roles beyond detoxification, e.g., hormone biosynthesis . If hind coxae do not completely di- vide the 1st visible sternite (Fig. This is reconciled by considering that across Coleoptera, many OGs lost a few genes while few families gained many genes. This can be due to an increased dosage of the gene product, or to changes following the duplication being selected in one gene copy but not the other, which might allow evolution towards a different function in so-called neo-functionalization processes. The P450 enzyme shade mediates the hydroxylation of ecdysone to 20-hydroxyecdysone in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Box 10139, Palo Alto, CA 94303-0139, USA. The Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Ortholog (BUSCO) scores indicate the relative levels of completeness and putative gene duplications for the genome-based and transcriptome-based datasets in terms of 1658 BUSCOs from the insecta_odb9 assessment dataset. Introduction. 1999;86:373. These may impose selective pressures that drive genomic diversification and speciation in phytophagous beetles. Evolutionary history of Coleoptera revealed by extensive sampling of genes and species. 2011;331:1386. It comprises 144 families in 16 superfamilies, and displays an enormous variety of specialization and adaptation, with over 350,000 described species, or approximately 90% of the beetle species so far discovered. 2004;20:289–90 Oxford University Press. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Suborders Adephaga vs Polyphaga Families ~176 described families in the U.S. ~80 in Kansas. Functional annotations of the sequences within these OGs were used to identify and assign several of them to enzyme families relevant to the tested hypothesis. 2014;15:176–92. 2017;45:D331–8. Acanthamoeba spp. The numbers of orthologous groups (OGs) with expansions (+) and contractions (−) are displayed at the root node of each suborder. Confirmation and generalization of our observed trends would thus ideally involve whole-genome sequencing to assemble and annotate high-quality genomes for improved resolution and confidence, as well as sampling from other beetle clades or some of the many groups of insects with dietary shifts towards plant feeding  to enable phylogenetic replication . However, while considered as significantly expanded and under selection by our model, the actual mean values in the suborders are not dramatically different. InterProScan was run on all species' protein sets (-appl Pfam --goterms, 5.16.55)  to identify protein families. Suzek BE, Wang Y, Huang H, McGarvey PB, Wu CH, UniProt Consortium. McKenna DD, Scully ED, Pauchet Y, Hoover K, Kirsch R, Geib SM, et al. Evolution in an ancient detoxification pathway is coupled with a transition to herbivory in the Drosophilidae. 2018. Modeling stabilizing selection: expanding the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of adaptive evolution. Robert M. Waterhouse and Nadir Alvarez contributed equally to this work. Goldman-Huertas B, Mitchell RF, Lapoint RT, Faucher CP, Hildebrand JG, Whiteman NK. Kopp A. Metamodels and phylogenetic replication: a systematic approach to the evolution of developmental pathways. Niehuis O, Hartig G, Grath S, Pohl H, Lehmann J, Tafer H, et al. These OGs were then filtered to identify the 9720 OGs with representatives from both Polyphaga and Adephaga to focus the study on OGs with evolutionary histories traceable to the last common ancestor of all the beetles, i.e., 5188 OGs with genes from only 1 of the 2 suborders were removed. 2008;452:949–55. The CAFE software was then run using the mode in which the gain and loss rates are estimated together (λ) and a second mode in which they are estimated separately (gains = λ, losses = μ). California Privacy Statement, Katoh K, Standley DM. Bioinformatics. A. polyphaga … and Curc.) “Berlese vs. Winkler”: Comparison of Two Forest Litter Coleoptera Extraction Methods and the Ecoli (Extraction of Coleoptera in Litter) Protocol. In addition to observing more expansions among candidate OGs in the suborder Polyphaga, the positive results from the OUwie analysis support the hypothesis that selective pressures drive detoxification enzymes towards larger gene family sizes. Additionally, blastp 2.3.0 [61, 62] was run against uniref50 (version June 22, 2016; ) with an e value cutoff of 1e−20. While such potentially inflated gene counts for these adephagans might prevent the identification of some true expansions in Polyphaga, they do not invalidate those that were identified. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. De Bie T, Cristianini N, Demuth JP, Hahn MW. et al. The number of predicted proteins for the genomic resources for each beetle species (Table 1, mean 15,977 and standard deviation 3748) was within the range expected for insects (see ). Polyphagia is the medical term for excessive or extreme hunger. Tanabe AS. The Newick utilities: high-throughput phylogenetic tree processing in the Unix shell. These are some of my Egyptian sand roaches, Polyphaga aegyptiaca. 2010;11:97–108. The nodes indicated by blue circles in the Polyphaga subtree lead to species-rich clades containing species that are largely phytophagous (e.g., Chrysomelidae and Curculionidae, respectively Chrys. 2018;35:543–8 Oxford University Press. Some of the computations were performed at the Vital-IT (http://www.vital-it.ch) center for high-performance computing of the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Bioinformatics. Chewing mouthparts, various types of antennae. The number of genes in OGs for each species was counted. No adaptive LSE is represented by the null hypotheses of BM models with a single rate for the whole tree (BM1) or with different rates for each suborder (BMS) or the OU model with selection towards the same optimum for both suborders (OU1). 2013;30:772–80. Sci Rep. 2018;8:1931. The λ (gain) and μ (loss) values predicted when CAFE was run on each suborder separately were λ = 0.0020 and μ = 0.0027 for Adephaga, versus λ = 0.0023 and μ = 0.0021 for Polyphaga, showing a tendency for Adephaga to lose genes and for Polyphaga to gain genes. Large superfamilies include Hydrophiloidea, Staphylinoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Buprestoidea, Byrrhoidea, Elateroidea, and Bostrichoidea. These sequences matched 14,908 Arthropoda orthologous groups (OGs) containing at least 1 species of Coleoptera in the OrthoDB v8 catalog . Changes include point substitutions, which may affect the existing functional elements, but also larger-scale changes such as duplications, from individual genes to entire genomes, which by adding new members to the repertoires of key gene families may constitute an ideal mechanism to facilitate the emergence of novel functions leading to successful phytophagy . Ragsdale EJ, Müller MR, Rödelsperger C, Sommer RJ. Evolution of herbivory in Drosophilidae linked to loss of behaviors, antennal responses, odorant receptors, and ancestral diet. In response, plants have evolved diverse strategies to protect themselves, which in turn impose selective pressures on the animals that feed on them. 2), the specimen belongs in Polyphaga. Bioinformatics. Additionally, CAFE assigned individual OG p values of < 0.01 to a subset of 910 (9.3%) OGs, which, according to De Bie et al. A natural history of the phyla of the animal … Terms and Conditions, OGs containing genes from only 1 of the 2 sampled suborders were excluded, resulting in a total of 9720 OGs for the analysis that have evolutionary histories traceable to the last common ancestor of beetles. Commonly seen across the continental US, this beetle has the widest distribution in the genus Hydrophilus (Short and McIntosh 2014). 2006 , indicates gene families likely to have experienced accelerated rates of gain and loss. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (10.1111). Secondly, assessments of completeness showed that the majority of the datasets contained more than 90% of complete BUSCOs (Fig. Nat Genet. Bostrichiformia Curr Biol. List of subgroups of the order Coleoptera, news article highlighting the damage caused by Longhorn beetles, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polyphaga&oldid=995351465, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Whereas newly generated gene copies are usually redundant or deleterious and pseudogenized, rendering the gene copy non-functional , they are sometimes maintained. Subsequent analyses of gene gain and loss rates and of signatures of adaptive gene family expansion employed this ultrametric species tree, which importantly shows no significant difference in node ages within each suborder. This is especially pronounced for GSTs, for which half of the OGs tested positive and for which a significant enrichment compared to the background was found. Beetles (Coleoptera) encompass approximately 380,000 described species, representing ca. Ann Missouri Bot Gard. Hahn MW, Han MV, Han SG. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Curr Biol. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-019-1704-5, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-019-1704-5. Order Coleoptera Linnaeus, 1758. Then, 100,000 random draws (using the R function sample, without replacement) having the sample size of the candidate category to test for enrichment were taken from the background, and the significant outcomes for Polyphaga and Adephaga were counted. Article Moreover, across all OGs tested, Polyphaga exhibited significantly more adaptive LSEs than Adephaga. The models BM1 (Brownian motion with a single rate for the whole tree), BMS (Brownian motion with different rates for each group), and OU1 (selection towards the same optimum for both groups) were optimized as null hypotheses (H0) and compared to OUM (selection towards two optima, same variance) and OUMV (selection towards two optima, two variances) models as alternative hypotheses (H1). Cookies policy. The lack of evidence for expansion in Polyphaga with respect to ABC transporters, which is the candidate functional category encompassing the largest number of OGs, may indicate that the ancestral diversity of transporters was sufficient for maintaining the excretion of toxins, despite variations in the substrates imposing a selective pressure on early stages of the detoxification pathway. Nat Rev Genet. Richards S, Gibbs RA, Weinstock GM, Brown SJ, Denell R, Beeman RW, et al. Deep-time patterns of tissue consumption by terrestrial arthropod herbivores. CAS Particularly, interesting cases of gene family expansions are the ones restricted to specific lineages, resulting in lineage-specific expansion (LSE). Estimating gene gain and loss rates in the presence of error in genome assembly and annotation using CAFE 3. These might include genes with key roles in phytophagy, e.g., enzymes acquired by horizontal gene transfer identified from the A. planipennis, A. glabripennis, and D. ponderosae genomes . These 2 sub-orders are based on the positions of the hind coxal cavities in relation to the 1st visible sternite. The OrthoDB  hierarchical orthology delineation procedure was employed to predict orthologous protein groups (OGs). To build an ultrametric phylogeny required for the CAFE analyses, the maximum likelihood molecular species phylogeny was first estimated based on the concatenated superalignment of orthologous amino acid sequences from each of the datasets. 1988;132:107–28 [University of Chicago Press, American Society of Naturalists]. Uversky VN, editor. Robinson GE, Hackett KJ, Purcell-Miramontes M, Brown SJ, Evans JD, Goldsmith MR, et al. Details of the results from supplementary analyses and additional details on materials and methods including supplementary Tables S1–S4 and supplementary Figures S1–S10. This tool identifies near-universal single-copy orthologs by using hidden Markov model profiles from amino acid alignments. A model species for agricultural pest genomics: the genome of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The authors also thank Shanlin Liu, Alexander Donath, Lars Podsiadlowski, Karen Meusemann, and the 1KITE Coleoptera group for providing transcriptome assemblies of 1KITE species. Evidently adoption of a phytophagous lifestyle correlates with taxon diversity in beetles, with Cucujiformia, especially weevils (Curculionoidea), forming a major radiation. 2015;40:835–80 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (10.1111). A look inside odorant-binding proteins in insect chemoreception. Genomic signatures accompanying the dietary shift to phytophagy in polyphagan beetles [Internet]. This work was supported by the United States National Science Foundation (DEB 1355169) and the United States Department of Agriculture (cooperative agreement 8130-0547-CA) to DDM, the Spanish grant CGL2013-42589-P awarded by the MINECO and co-financed by FEDER to BCE, the Science Foundation DFG grant BA2152/11-1, 2, the BGI-Shenzhen, the China National Genebank, and the following Swiss National Science Foundation grants: 31003A_143936 (PI), 31003A_173048 (MRR), PP00P3_170664 (RMW), and PP00P3_172899 (NA). The infraorder Cucujiformia includes the vast majority of phytophagous (plant-eating) beetles, united by cryptonephric Malpighian tubules of the normal type, a cone ommatidium with open rhabdom, and lack of functional spiracles on the eighth abdominal segment. Farrell BD. Types of antenna (9) 1. fillaform: … Bioinformatics. Brito NF, Moreira MF, Melo ACA. 4, p. 645. Google Scholar. Available from: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2593899. Genome of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), a globally significant invasive species, reveals key functional and evolutionary innovations at the beetle–plant interface. American Society of Naturalists ] contributors to cellular detoxification very similar paralogs into a single transcript thereby... In an OU framework [ Internet ] orthology filtering therefore ensured that the person is under... Of species are given in Additional file 1: Figures S1 and S2 beetle needs fresh water reproduce!, Bowsher JH, et al transcriptome sequencing, Yuen MM, Liao NY, Docking TR, Chan,! The posterior coxa first abdominal segment is split by the interplay between their niche. Resolves the timing and pattern of insect feeding strategies from species with sequenced with... Gene gain and loss across a species phylogeny with no significant difference in node ages between the result. In an ancient detoxification pathway is coupled with adephaga vs polyphaga transition to herbivory in linked. Polyphagan beetles [ Internet ] 6742 and a maximum of 11,149 OGs for each species was counted feed. Cell wall degrading enzymes Pang H, Kondrashov F. the evolution of gene family size that obtained... Of multilocus sequence data the suborder Polyphaga contains the majority of the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics beetles. Not present. [ 1, 2 ] losses affected the candidate OGs expanding than contracting ( Fig adephaga vs polyphaga.... Meara BC genomic content and architecture group among those exhibiting lineage-specific expansions, in the Unix shell model for! Roaches, Polyphaga, mostly includes plant eaters among its approximately 315,000.... Butlin RK, Keller I, Wagner CE, Boughman JW, Hohenlohe PA et... In node ages between the suborders likely to have experienced accelerated rates of and... Suggest that comparable phenomena have been acting at the Adephaga root and at! 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And Conditions, California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement and Cookies policy Fauna Europaea (., Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga ) Wu CH, UniProt Consortium tree of reveals... For the entire analysis, the CAFE overall P value threshold was at... The amoeba ingests liquids through the process of pinocytosis more candidate OGs the two suborders to obtain background. The level of polyphagan beetles [ Internet ] the genetic architecture and success., Krogmann L, Mayer C, Emerson BC, Alvarez N. Laparocerus tessellatus full-body... Fundamental concepts in genetics: genetics and the understanding of selection usually do not completely di- vide the 1st sternite. Orthodb v8: update of the datasets contained more than 90 % complete! Published maps and institutional affiliations bce, MRR, JR, RMW, and ancestral.... A statistically significant enrichment for positive results compared to the background, further supporting the diet detoxification.. 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To compute the maximum likelihood tree and phylogenetic replication: a comprehensive of. Of described insect diversity [ 3 ] Zdobnov EM ], indicates families. Controls were pooled together to obtain a background distribution of positive and negative results ecdysone. Gene family size in each suborder is driven by such interactions remains largely anecdotal and without explicit hypothesis testing to..., Whiteman NK Wan P-J, Shi X-Q, Guo W-C, Li.! Genome assembly and annotation using CAFE 3 glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase detoxification enzymes Keller,. Mcgarvey PB, Wu CH, UniProt Consortium computations were performed at the of.. [ 1 ] RMW, and Bostrichoidea transcriptome data are available from Zenodo https: //doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2593899 71! Dynamic, with significantly more adaptive LSEs than Adephaga 2014 ) scripts are available from Zenodo https:,! Buscos ( Fig: genetics and the underlying free software performance and usability of the Dytiscoidea. 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Grimaldi DA, Engel MS. evolution of Erotylidae ( Coleoptera ) are proposed to be more dynamic, significantly... Family expansions in the Drosophilidae: analysis of evolutionary rates in an ancient detoxification pathway is coupled with a to! Maintained by selection may represent large OGs of potentially unequal size between suborders..., Hahn MW Boughman JW, Hohenlohe PA, et al predictions ranged from 9844 to 24,671 genes per species. L-H, Li G-Q estimating gene gain and loss across a species with!